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In battle with U.S., China to focus on 7 ‘frontier’ technologies from chips to brain-computer fusion

China is looking to boost research into what it calls “frontier technology” including quantum computing and semiconductors, as it competes with the U.S. for supremacy in the latest innovations. In its five-year development plan, the 14th of its kind, Beijing said it would make “science and technology self-reliance and self-improvement a strategic pillar for national development,” according to a CNBC translation.

Premier Li Keqiang said on Friday that China would increase research and development spending by more than 7% per year between 2021 and 2025, in pursuit of “major breakthroughs” in technology. China’s technology champions such as Huawei and SMIC have been targeted by U.S. sanctions as tensions between Beijing and Washington have ramped up in the past few years.

As such, China has concentrated on boosting its domestic expertise in areas it sees as strategically important, such as semiconductors. And now it has laid out seven “frontier technologies” that it will prioritize not just for the next five years, but beyond too.

1) Artificial intelligence (AI)
China plans to focus on specialized chip development for AI applications and developing so-called open source algorithms. Open source technology is usually developed by one entity and licensed by other companies.

2) Quantum information
This is category of technology involves quantum computing. This is a totally different concept from the computers we use today and holds the promise of being able to aid in ambitious feats such as the creation of new medicine. Quantum computing is seen as another area of competition between the U.S. and China.

3) Integrated circuits or semiconductors
Semiconductors are a critical area for China and one it has invested a lot in over the past few years but the country has struggled to catch up to the U.S., Taiwan and South Korea. The problem is the complexity of the semiconductor supply chain. Taiwan’s TSMC and South Korea’s Samsung are the two most advanced chip manufacturers but they rely on tools from the U.S. and Europe.

4) Brain science
China plans to research areas such as how to stop diseases of the brain. But it also says that it plans to look into “brain-inspired computing” as well as “brain-computer fusion technology,” according to a CNBC translation. The five-year plan did not elaborate on what that could look like.

5) Genomics and biotechnology
With the outbreak of the coronavirus last year, biotechnology has grown in importance. China says it will focus on “innovative vaccines” and “research on biological security.”

6) Clinical medicine and health
China’s research will concentrate on understanding the progression of cancer, cardiovascular, respiratory and metabolic diseases. The government also says that it will research some “cutting-edge” treatment technologies such as regenerative medicine. This involves medicine that can regrow or repair damaged cells, tissues and organs.

7) Deep space, deep earth, deep sea and polar research
Space exploration has been a top priority for China recently. Beijing said it will focus on research into the “origin and evolution of the universe,” exploration of Mars as well as deep sea and polar research. In December, a Chinese spacecraft returned to Earth carrying rocks from the moon. It was the first time China has launched a spacecraft from an extraterrestrial body and the first time it has collected moon samples.

In battle with U.S., China to focus on 7 ‘frontier’ technologies from chips to brain-computer fusion, CNBC, Mar 5

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